SHINE Spectro-Gonio Radiometer facility

Type: Laboratory Experiment facility

Facility name: SHINE Spectro-Gonio Radiometer
(SpectropHotometer with variable INcidence and Emergence)

Location:
Institut de Planétologie et Astrophysique de Grenoble
CNRS – Université Grenoble Alpes
Batiment D de Physique, 3rd level
124, rue de la Piscine
38400 Saint Martin d’Hères, France

Persons in charge:
Scientific: Bernard Schmitt, Research director & Pierre Beck, Assistant Professor
Technical: Olivier Brissaud, Engineer

=> Measurement time estimator
=> How to estimate the necessary sample volume?
=> How to apply for a TA Visit?

References: Bonnefoy 2001 (PhD thesis);   Brissaud et al. 2004


General description

The SHINE instrument is our unique home-made Spectro-Gonio Radiometer that allows to measure the bidirectional reflectance spectra and distribution functions of various types of planetary materials (granular to compact) over almost the whole solar spectrum, from the visible to the near-IR (from 400 to 4800 nm), with a high degree of radiometric accuracy (better than +/-0.5%) under most viewing geometries (illumination and observation up to almost 80°, all azimuths, phase angle > 4-10° ). The instrument is fully described in Brissaud et al. 2004, Appl. Optics, 43, 1926.

The instrument is located in a dark cold room that can be cooled down to -20°C. It is fully automatized and the data calibration and reduction are made with homemade softwares. Various types of measurements can be programmed: simple reflectance spectra at one geometry (but possibly varying with time, temperature, or physical/chemical process), full BRDF (only in open sample holder), limited angle BRDF spectra or at few wavelengths (SERAC and CarboN-IR cells), …


Technical characteristics:

Spectral range:
– 0.35 – 4.5 µm (-> 5.0 µm: lower S/N) (4.2-4.3µm: atm. CO2 limited)

Spectral resolution: variable
– mini: < 0.1 nm (but S/N limited)
– maxi: 6 nm (<750nm), 12 nm (<1500nm), 24 nm (<3000nm), 48nm (>3000nm)

Bidirectional Reflectance:
Incidence angle: 0° to 85° ; resolution: 0.1° ; maximum sampling : 0.1°
Emergence angle: 0° to 80° (to 83° for dark / fine grained samples) ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°
Azimuth angle: 0° to 180° ; resolution : ± 2° (may be reduced to < ± 0.5°, but S/N limited) ; max. sampling : 0.1°
Phase angle: mini to 165° ; mini : ~ 8° for bright / large grained samples ; ~ 4° for dark / fine grained samples

Illumination diameter (nadir): 200 mm
Observation diameter (nadir): 20 mm

Small samples option

For samples smaller than 25 mm in diameter we also have a special attachment that change both the illumination diameter and solid angle as for SHADOWS:

Illumination diameter (nadir): 7.1 mm
Incidence angle: 0° to 65° (55° for bright samples) ; resolution: ±2.9°; min. sampling : 0.1°
Emergence angle: 0° to 85°; resolution : ± 2°

Photometry:
Absolute:
– 0.3-1.0 µm: better than 1% over all configurations (relative to a calibrated Spectralon 0.99 reference panel)
– 1.0-2.5 µm: better than 1% over all configurations
– 2.5-5 µm : better than 2% over all configurations
Relative :
– better than 0.5% (0.3-2.5 µm)

Polarimetry options (only partly tested)
Illumination :
– linear polarization : variable 0 to 90° ; spectral range : 0.3 – 2.8 µm
Observation :
– 1 component over the 0.3 – 5µm range + unpolarized or || and ┴ components over restricted spectral range

Spectro-Gonio 30-45deg.jpg
General view of the SHINE Spectro-gonio radiometer at IPAG

Monochromator+electronics.JPG
General view of the instrumentation

Samples:
Types: rocks, minerals, snow / ice, sulfur, … (from very bright to dark)
Texture: compact or granular
Grain size: micrometer to a few millimeters
Size:
maxi:
– 300mm diameter, 250 mm deep (for bright & coarse grained samples)
– 120 mm in diameter, 2-10 mm deep (for dark or fine grained samples)
mini:
– 25 mm x 120 mm (for principal plane observation down to 80°)
– 25 mm x 45 mm (for principal plane observation down to 60°)

Temperature:
– room temperature or heated
– down to -20°C (in cold room)
– down to -40°C (in SERAC environmental cell)
– down to -200°C (in CarboN-IR environmental cell)

Experiment control:
– PC/Windows, fully software controlled (LabView©). Automatic acquisition of all spectral/geometric configurations

Acquisition time:
– typical: 15 mn for 200 spectral channels in visible (S/N dependent). 1h15 for a full vis-NIR spectrum at nominal resolution and sampling.
– total: 15 hours for 100 spectral channels and 100 geometries

Current state of system:
– 0.35 – 4.8 µm range: fully calibrated
– polarization: tested (not available for external users)
– low temperature: tested in cold room down to -20°C ; in SERAC down to -40°C, in CarboN-IR down to -200°C (73K)

Links:
Characteristics:  Spectro-Gonio_characteristics


Sample holders:

SHINE has currently 3 major sample holder configurations:

Open sample holders (various sizes) in cold chamber over -20°C ─ +20°C temperature range.

Sample holders (aluminum):
– cylindrical, d= 250 mm, h=100 mm
– cylindrical, d=200 mm, h=60 mm
– cylindrical, d=150 mm, h=25 mm
– cylindrical, d=150 mm, h=10 mm

– The SERAC environmental cell with cryostats, pumps, pressure and temperature controllers, which allows us to introduce gas(es) of known composition and pressure (10-6 mb – 1 bar) over the sample and controlling and measuring the temperature over the -40°C ─ +80°C range.

Sample holders (aluminum):
– rectangular, L= 80 mm, l=35 mm, h=10 mm
– rectangular, L= 80 mm, l=35 mm, h=6 mm
– rectangular, L= 80 mm, l=35 mm, h=3 mm

– The CarboN-IR environmental cell #1 extending the capacity of the previous cell for big samples (up to 300 cm3), and down to -230°C (40K) in almost fully isothermal conditions, with additional pressure and gas flux controls. It takes 2 hours to cool it down to 150K

Sample holder (cooper):
– cylindrical, d= 80 mm, h=60 mm

Sample holders (aluminum):
Cylindrical:
– d = 68 mm, h = 58 mm
– d = 48 mm, h = 20 mm
– d = 48 mm, h = 10 mm
– d = 48 mm, h = 5 mm
– d = 48 mm, h = 2 mm
– d = 48 mm, h = 1 mm
– d = 40 mm, h = 8mm
– d = 39 mm, h = 7mm
– d = 38 mm, h = 6mm
– d = 37 mm, h = 5,5mm
– d = 36 mm, h = 5mm
– d = 35 mm, h = 4,5mm
– d = 34 mm, h = 4mm
– d = 33 mm, h = 3,5mm
– d = 32 mm, h = 3mm
– d = 31 mm, h = 2,5mm
– d = 30 mm, h = 2mm
– d = 29 mm, h = 1,5mm
– d = 28 mm, h = 1mm

And specifically for the ‘Gognito mode’:
– d = 20 mm, h= 5 mm
– d = 18 mm, h= 4.5 mm
– d = 16 mm, h= 4 mm
– d = 14 mm, h= 3.5 mm
– d = 12 mm, h= 3 mm
– d = 10 mm, h= 2.5 mm

– A new CarboN-IR environmental cell #2 has been developped for bigger samples (up to 550 cm3), and extended observation area and angles of the sample surface. It takes 3 hours to cool it down to 150K.

Sample holder (cooper):
– cylindrical, d= 100 mm, h=70 mm

Sample holders (aluminum):
– same as for cell #1

Tools and sub-systems:

A number of sample preparation tools and experiment sub-systems are available to the facility:

– For samples preparation: another cold chamber (down to -20°C), set of sample holders, several specific tools for ice sample preparation, 2 sets of sieves, grinders, mortars, saw, balances, microscope, owen, ultra-pure water, several pure gasses, wet chemistry materials a, several owens (up to 1200°C) for sample treatments.

– For the experiment: a thermodynamic volumetric system with high accuracy pressure gauges (10-6 to 1 bar), a flow meter (1-10 sccm) and pumps. He-Ne laser + detectors, camera for sample monitoring, …

Availability to community:

– Technical improvements/calibration (~15%)
– IPAG + associated laboratories measurements (~60%)
– Open as Europlanet 2020-RI facility (TNA) (~15%)
– Open to specific collaborations w. funding (~10%)

For further information contact: Bernard Schmitt